In vitro fertilization (IVF) is referred to as “test tube baby”. It is a procedure that involves the picking up of eggs from a woman, fertilizing them outside the body with the male partner’s sperm, and replacing the resultant embryos into the female partner’s uterus. In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) is the treatment of choice for couples with blocked fallopian tubes, severe abnormalities in the semen parameters, genetic diseases in either parent resulting in miscarriages or stillbirths, women whose ovaries are failing due to age or other causes of infertility.
1. Ovulation induction
A fertility specialist will monitor ovaries and the timing of the egg release. The doctor will make sure that your ovaries are producing eggs, and hormone levels are normal, among other procedures. Most women take fertility medicines or hormones at this time to stimulate the ovaries to produce one or more eggs. Having several eggs available for IVF will increase the chances that you will get pregnant.
2. Egg retrieval
In Egg retrieval Process very thin needle is passed through the upper vaginal wall. With the use of vaginal ultrasound, fluid is removed from the follicles under gentle suction.
When sperm sample is secured, either from your partner or a donor and the most active sperm is mixed with the egg in a special chamber. Sometimes the sperm is directly injected into the egg. Then, the sperm and egg are placed in an incubator and monitored to make sure that a healthy embryo develops.
4. Embryo transfer and Implantation
Embryos are examined to select the healthiest ones for transfer. To transfer the embryo(s), a speculum is placed into your vagina and the embryo(s) are transferred via a small plastic tube placed through the cervix into the uterine cavity. After the IVF process is complete, bed rest is often advised for around 24 hours Then few weeks after undergoing the in vitro fertilization process, you are able to take a pregnancy test.
Causes of Infertility
1. Some couples do not have a diagnosed reason for their infertility. This is called unexplained infertility.
2. Women have extensively damaged fallopian tubes from pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) or from severe intra-abdominal infections.
3. Women who are being treated for cancer with chemotherapy to be able to have children. Chemotherapy can destroy or damage the eggs within the ovary.
4. Sperm is defective or counts are extremely low.
5. Absent Ovaries & Absent Uterus Most Causes of Infertility.
IVF – chance of success
A woman’s ability to conceive a child reduces with age. If you are using your own eggs, on average, the younger you are the higher your chances of success.
32.2% for women aged under 35
27.7% for women aged between 35–37
20.8% for women aged between 38–39
13.6% for women aged between 40–42
5.0% for women aged between 43–44
1.9% for women aged 45 and over
Maintaining a healthy weight and avoiding alcohol, smoking, and caffeine during treatment may improve your chances of having a baby with IVF.
IVF can provide hope for patients facing many different causes of infertility. Women with damage or blockages in their fallopian tubes have very low chances of becoming pregnant & men who have a low sperm count. IVF also allows women to freeze their eggs when they are younger to preserve them for future use. IVF provides an especially important benefit for women who have gone through premature menopause. IVF also help for pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD).
A mild reaction to fertility drugs may involve hot flushes, feeling down or irritable, headaches and restlessness. multiple births this cab be dangerous for mother & children. When aspirating needle to collect eggs could possibly cause bleeding, infection or damage to the bowel, bladder or a blood vessel.