Bladder Cancer

Bladder-CancerBladder Cancer is a type of cancer that begins in your bladder most often in the cells that line the inside of the bladder. Bladder cancer typically affects adults, though it can occur at any age.

Types of Bladder Cancer

  •  Transitional Cell Bladder Cancer is the most common type of bladder cancer. It starts in cells, called transitional cells, in the bladder lining (urothelium). Some bladder cancers begin as an invasive tumor growing into the muscle wall of the bladder. Others begin at a non-invasive stage that involves only the inner lining of the bladder – this is early (superficial) bladder cancer. Some non-invasive cancers develop into invasive bladder cancer.
  • Carcinoma in Situ is a type of non-invasive bladder cancer that appears as a flat, red area in the bladder. CIS can grow quickly, and if it’s not treated effectively, there’s a high risk that CIS will develop into an invasive bladder cancer.
  • Papillary Cancer is a form of early bladder cancer. Some people may have both papillary cancer and CIS.
  • Rarer Types of Bladder Cancer includes squamous cell cancer and adenocarcinoma. Squamous cell cancers start from a different kind of cell in the bladder lining. Adenocarcinoma starts from epithelial cells. Both of these types are usually invasive.

Treatments

  •  Radiation Therapy is a high-energy ray that kills cancer cells and healthy cells in its path. It is for small muscle-invasive bladder cancers.
  • Chemotherapy is the use of powerful drugs to kill cancer. In bladder cancer, chemotherapy may be given alone or with surgery or radiation therapy or both. It may be given before or after the other treatments.
  • Transurethral Resection with Fulguration In this operation, an instrument (resectoscope) is inserted through the urethra and into the bladder. A small wire loop on the end of the device then removes the tumor by cutting it or burning it with electrical current. It is for the initial diagnosis of bladder cancer and the treatment of stages Ta and T1 cancers.
  • Radical Cystectomy In this operation, the entire bladder is removed, as well as its surrounding lymph nodes and other structures that may contain cancer. It is for cancer that has at least invaded into the muscular layer of the bladder wall or for more superficial cancers that extend over much of the bladder or that have failed to respond to more conservative treatments.
  • Segmental or Partial Cystectomy In this operation, part of the bladder is removed. It is for solitary low-grade tumors that have invaded the bladder wall but are limited to a small area of the bladder.

    Symptoms

    Low back pain
    Blood in your urine
    Pain when you urinate
    A frequent urge to urinate

    Causes

    Smoking
    Gender
    Increasing age
    Food and drink
    Other chemicals
    Schistosomiasis
    Repeated bouts
    Ethnic background
    Previous radiotherapy or chemotherapy

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